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The West American Scientist. 



YOUTH'S COMPANION: 

144 Berkeley street, Boston, Mass. 

This popular paper is adited for the en- 
tire family, and is eagerly looked for 
each week by young and old al'ike. 
Bright and amusing anecdotes, stories, 
curious and useful knowl.:'dge. timely ed- 
itorials on public and domestic questions 
make up this great literary achievement. 
$1.75 a year. 

SA-NITARIAN, THE: 

337 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

"The best sanitary publication in 
America." — Miss. Valley Med. Mo. 

"Easily maintains its superiority over 
all similar publications." — Med. World. 

$4 a year in advance, 3.5 cts. a number, 
sample copies 20 cts. (10 2-cent postage 
stamps)). 96 pages' text monthly; 2 vol- 
umes yearly. 

"The editor, Dr. A. N. Bell, is well 
known as a leader in sanitary science." 
N. Y. Jour, of Commerce. 



WANTRD-FAITHFULPKRSONTn TRaVKL 
foi- well est.iblishcd hou.'ie in a few comities, 
callins on retail merehants and agents. lx)cal 
territory. Salarv .fl02t a yp'ir and cxiienses, pay- 
alile .^19 7t) a week cash and expenses advanced 
Position permanent. Business hiU'Cessfnl and 
rushing. Stnndard House, 331 Dearborn street, 
Chicago. 



Thk American Socibty of Curio Collectors 
is an organization to which all students of Na- 
ture, and all lovers of curios, antiques, &c., 
should belong. Organized for protection against 
frauds, the promotion of good fellowship, the 
exchange of specimens between members and 
theinterchange of experience for mutual help. 
The 100 page yearbook sent free to members, also 
the official organ each nionlli, a splendid collec- 
tors' paper. Dnes S.'jcentsa year, initiation fee 
10c. Send lor blank applic^ation and further in- 
formation to Wm. Warner, Jr., secretary, 1731 
Division ave.. East St. Lonis, 111., or to Wm. C. 
Aiken, Angwin, Napa Co., California. 



EAIl 



We have a lot of the Choicest 4 Crown 
London L,ayer.s which we are offering at 

3 lbs. for 25 cents. 

The CENTRAL GROCERY Company 
719-721 Eifth St. San Diego. 






'"^ 




OLD 



MEXICO 

and Sweetwater Dam in a day. 

Through Orange and Lemon Groves. 

A trip to San Diego is incomplete with- 
out a trip to Old Mexico and the 
Sweetwater Dam over the 

National City and Otay Railway. 
Train leaves foot 5th st. at 9:10 a. m. 

daily — for particulars see folders. 

E. A. HoRNBECK, Superintendent. 

Purchase your 

FOOTWEAR at 

Llewelyn's, 

728 Fifth street. 



'^- 50 YEARS' 
XPERIENCE 




Trade Marks 

Designs 
Copyrights &c. 

Anyone sending a sketch and descriptinr. may 
quickly iiscert.'iiu onr oiiinion free whether an 
invcmic.ii is iiriibably patentKble. Communica- 
tions strict lycdTitidential. Handbook on Patents 
sent, free. Oldest aeency for securing patents. 

P.'itents taken through Munn & Co. receive 
spec ial notice, without charge, in the 

dentiftc nmeilcati. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest cir- 
culation of any scientific iournal. Terms, $3 a 
ytiir; four months, $1. Sold byall newsdealer.s. 

&C0=361 Broadway JeyyYoi-ft 

Branch Offioe. 625 F St., Washington, D. C. 



2 0JUN.1903 



2 0JUin903 



\% 



The West American Scientist. 



Vol. XIV. No. 6. 



May, 1903. 



Whole No. J2§. 



FORESTRY. 



President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, of 
the University of California, announces 
a course of summer lectures on forestry 
at Idyllwild. 'Strawben-y Valley, San 
Jacinto mountains. Riverside county, 
California, from July 29 to August 10, 
1903,. This will be the first school of 
forestry west of the Allegheny moun- 
tains, and the lectures will be given by 
Dr. W. L. Jepison, Prof. Arnold V. Stu- 
benrauch, and (probably Mr. Gifford 
Pinchot. The fee for the course will be 
six dollars. 

There is a general sentiment among 
the natives of Honolulu against vac- 
cination, as it is stated that vaccination 
spreads leprosy. A bill repealing the 
existing vaccination law" was recently 
passed. 



C. C. 



Cactus Connoisseurs would be the 
polite expansion of the initials head- 
ing this article, but Ca.ctus u.-a.ii.s Is 
possibly the more common form used 
by an indifferet v, orxc wi-ic-i Cactus 
Collectors are referred to. 

It is proposed to ccllect brief sketches 
of those whose names have been con- 
nected in the past witih these fascinat- 
ing plants, which in the end might be 
incorporated into an Encyclopaediia of 
Biography. 

BRIGGS. MRS. MAUD M.- 
Mrs. Briggs will be remembered by 
cactus fanciers from her having used 
the expression, in advertising her cacti, 
that she lived 'where they grow.' She 
was a florist who lived at El Paso, Tex- 
as, with a penchant for using and con- 
fusing the botanical nameis — which left 
her correspondents in delightful sus- 



pense as to what they might receive. 
Chihuahua dogs were favorite pets 
with h€r. In 1899 she reported a new 
Mammillaria which was to be named in 
her honor— but none are known to exist 
in scientific collections, and soon after 
she ceased to live where they grow — 
Or. 
MAIN, MRS. F. M.: 

In passing through Nogales, Arizona, 
in 1899, I met this energetic woman, 
who after acquiring a substantial prop- 
ery in brick buildings, houses and lots, 
took to cactus collecting— as she frank- 
ly explained— for the money. The most 
of her collections were made in trie vi- 
cinity of Nogales— mostly on the Sono- 
ra side, her expedlitions extending prob- 
ably the whole length of the Sonora 
railroad. Mammillaria Mainae com- 
memorates her work, and was undaubt- 
edly obtained in the mountains of So- 
nora near Nogales— at least I was so- 
in^crnitd by one of her assistants. She 
was reported to have been killed in a 
saloon f:g;it in 1902 (an affair that 
would have been characteristic of the 
border town in which she lived), but 
the facts were that she died in Los An- 
geles, California, from an operation for 
can#er. — Or. 

NICKELS, MRS. ANNA B.: 

As a pioneer woman florist in the 
southwest, and the first woman C. C, 
Mrs. Nickels has won wide recognition 
and deserves more than passing notice. 
After years of correspondence, I had 
the pleasure of meeting her in 1902, at 
her son's home in San Luis Potosi— a 
woman over seventy, still an eager en- 
thusiast, planning trips inta new re- 
gions that would be a credit to the 
modern woman. Several species named 
in her honor have been introduced to 



41 



The West American Scientist. 



42 



Ithe horticultural world throug'h her la- 
bors and explorations, and one could 
listen for hours, unwearied, to accounts 
of her early expeditions. Unfortunate- 
ly she has been more diligent in the 
xise of the piik than of the pen, an4 
much that she might have added to the 
world's store of useful and curious lore 
remains to be recorded by others, who 
may follow in her footsteps. — Or. 
CURRAN, MRS. MARY K.: 

See Katharine Brandegee. 
BRANDEGEE, MRS. KATHARINE: 

A prominent character in the annals 
Of West American botany, whose inter- 
i..et in cacti began .soon after she ceased 
Lier career under the name of Mrs. 
Hilary K. Curran. Many species have 
been described by her pen as a resulc of 
tier own and her husband's explca- 
lions, chiefly identified with Lower Cal- 
iifornia (as pertains to cacti) up to the 
i)resent writing (1903). — Or. 

EDITORIAL. 

■We publish this month an outline of 
the wor proposed by the wild flower 
preservation society, which we consider 
worthy of the encouragement of our 
readers. In California we stand in need 
of the preservation of certain beauti- 
ful treeg^ and the action taken some 
years ago for the protection of the Tor- 
rey pine of San Diego c:unty was taken 
none too soon. The Parry lily, of the 
mountain region of Southern Califor- 
jiia, is in most urgent need of protec- 
tion from the spirit of commercialism, 
which has already rendered this beau- 
tiful flower a rare one. The annual 
dues of the society are one dollar a 
year, which entitles members to "The 
Plant World" monthly, and the secre- 
tary, Charles Louis Pollard, 1854 Fifth 
street, Washington, D. C, will be 
pleased to enroll the names of all who 
are in cordial sympathy with the ob- 
jects of the organization. 
RANDSBURG MINING DISTRICT. 

A topographic map of the country ad- 
jacent to the Randsburg and Johan- 
nesburg mining districts, California, is 
now in press and wMl soon be issued by 
the United States Geological Survey. 
The area covered by this map is known 
as the Randsburg quadrangle, and em.- 
braces almost equal portions of Kern 
and San Bernardino counties, and 
iSbows part of the location of the 



Randsburg Railroad, which connects 
Johannesburg with Barstow, San Ber- 
nardino county. 

The scale of this map is approxi- 
mately one mile to the inch. The con- 
tour vertical interval of 50 feet shows 
well the topographic features of the re- 
gion. All roads, trails, mines, and 
houses are shown with great exactness, 
and. — most important in such an arid 
country — the positions of all wells, 
springs, reservoirs, and dry lakes are 
accurately located. This section is 
practically a desert, and unless water 
can be found within reasonable dis- 
tances and at depths easily reached 
from the surface, prospectors and min- 
ers can not prosecute their work. The 
water for Randsburg and Johannes- 
bui<£> is p. PL a srom \\ellz about 5 miles 
northeast of these places. It is of fairly 
goo- ^.1 .ty but is insufflcient in quan- 
tity, and while the water company 
charges are not there regarded as ex- 
cessive, the lowest rates would aston- 
ish those who are not familiar with 
this desert country. Persons occupy:i:g 
houses or tents withO'ut water pipes 
usually pay one dollar a barrel for 
water. 

The whole area represented on this 
sheet is one of the most forbidding des- 
erts in the United States. The valleys 
are practically sand bedis, the moun- 
tains bare masses of rock. The only 
vegetaton in the valleys is scattered, 
low cactus, with here and there a 
greasewood or creosote bush about 
knee-high. The mountains are abso- 
luiely devoid of grass or trees. 

The mineral wealth, principally gold, 
constitutes the whole value of the 
country; but this is sufficient to have 
built up during the last few years the 
flourishing mining camps of Randsburg 
and Johannesburg, with an aggregate 
population of about 1,200. 



THE WILD FLOWER PRESERVA- 
TION SOCIETY OF AERICA. 

The 'increased interest in nature 
study developed within recent years, 
and stimulated bp numerous illustrated 
books of a popular nature, has unfor- 
tunately endangered the existence of 
many ornamental wild plants that 
would otherwise have escaped public 
notice. The problem presented Is how 



43 



The West American Scientist. 



44 



these depredations may be checked 
without seriously restricting the free- 
dom or enjoyment of the nature-lover. 

Locan societies having this aim in 
view have been established in several 
places, and various articles on the sub- 
ject have appeared in magazines and 
newspapers: these are all useful! fac- 
tors in arousing a healthy public senti- 
ment against indiscriminate and 
thoughtless flower-picking. But it is 
evident that the successful prosecu- 
tion of a campaign of this kind re- 
quires a central body which shall direct 
and inspire the work; and it also re- 
quires some official medium of publi- 
cation. The organization of a national 
society along these lines, effected on 
April 23, 19U2, while it represents to a 
certain extent the growth of popular 
sentime.it, is the direct result of the re- 
mairks iby Dr. F. H. Knowlton in his 
essay, "Suggestions for the Preserva- 
tion of Our Native Plants," which was 
awarded the first prize in the recent 
competition held by the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden with the income of the 
Caroline and Olivia Phelps-Stokes 
fund. A few paragraphs from the es- 
say itself will serve as a partial ex- 
planation of the aims and objects of the 
Society: 

"It seems to me that all legitimate ef- 
fort that can be made for the conserva- 
tion of the native flora is naturally di- 
visible into two fie^^s: First, iho broad- 
er, higher plane of enlightened public 
sentiment reg;:ding the pr^tectioi of 
plants in general ttnd, stcona, tne im- 
mediate steps that must be, taken to 
save certain of thei mere showy or in- 
teresting forms now threatened with 
fcxtermjnation, The first is something 
we m'ay reasonably hope for, even if it 
comes slowly; the second is a practical 
question that must be solved quickly or 
it will be too late. * * * The public 
must be educated up to the point when 
it will be possible for them to enjoy 
the flowers and plants of field and for- 
est without destroying them. They 
must be led to see that it is only self- 
ishness which prompts the indiscrim- 
inate plucking of every bright-colored 
flower or shsCpely fern that attracts 
their eye. A walk afield, enlivened by 
the presence of flowers and birds, leaves 
behind a memory that inay be cher- 
ished for years. The ruthless breaking 



up of this rounded symmetry of nature, 
smply for the gratification of the monn- 
ment, leaves a void impossible to fill." 
* * * * 

The proposed fie'ds of labor of the So- 
ciety may be summarized as folUows: 

EDUCATION.— The primary and sec- 
ondary schools afford abundant oppor- 
tunity for nnissionary work. Let every 
teacher aim to impress on the pupils 
under his charge the beauty and value 
of plant life. Let him give some in- 
struction in the differences between 
native species, many of which are rare 
or easily destroyed, and the intraduced 
weeds, most of which are so sturdy 
and abundant that they will survive 
wholesale plucking. 

MORAL SUASION.— Public senti- 
ment can be influence<i to a large ex- 
tent by articles In newspapers and 
magazines, if the subject-matter is 
well presented. The establishment of 
a press bureau by the Society is ex- 
pected to facilitate this work. 

PUBLIC PARKS.— Many cities have 
set apart for public use and enjoyment 
various tracts of land distinguished for 
the beauty of their scenery or vegeta- 
tion. This is one of the most effective 
means of preserving plants from de- 
struction, and local chapters will be 
farmed to work on this line. 

LEGISLATION.— In some few in- 
stances it may be advisable to invoke 
such legislation a? protects the Hart- 
ford fein n Connecticut, ih.s, howe>'6r, 
is a last resrrt, and should only be em- 
ployed in emeirgeneies where all other 
measures for protection have failed. 

COMPULSORY ONION EATING. 

Onion-eating people are said to be 
immune from smallpox attacks. It is 
suggested that the grange associations 
of each state shall petition the legisla- 
tures to pass laws making onion-eating 
compulsory. The advantages over 
vaccination are several: — we have nev- 
er seen it asserted by a physician that 
onion-eaters were not immune; no de- 
tails from onion eaters have ever been 
reported; the increased consumption of 
onions will greatly benefit the agri- 
cultural classes and add to the longevi- 
ty of the nations; and only the super- 
fastidious people (the very rich, wko 
are immune from the laws anyway), 



45 



The West American Scientist. 



46 



could object to compulsion in eating 
such a delicious vegetable. Those too 
rpoor to purchase the succulent should 
be provided with a regular supply at 
the expense of the state. Doctors, who 
visit sick people, should regularly file 
affidavits as to the quantity of onions 
eaten within a given period, that the 
public health may not be endangered. 
C. R. ORCUTT. 




Trade Marks 
Designs 
copvrjghts &.c. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain our opinion free whether an 
invention is probahly patentable, ronmniiiica- 
tlons strictly conflcicntial. Handbook on Patents 
sent free. Oldest as.'ency fur securing patents. 

Patents taken through Munn & Co. receive 
Speciai notice, without c harg e, in the 

Scientific jittieiicait. 

A handsomely illustrated weekly. I.arcest cir- 
culation of any scientific :)ournal. Terms, |3 a 
year; four months, $1. Sold by all newsdealers. 

MUNN &Co.36'«^»=«'«-v. New York 

Branch Office, 625 F St., Washington, D. C. 



OLD 



MEXICO 



and Sweetwater Dam in a day. 

Through Orange and Lemon Groves. 

A trip to San Uiego is incomplete witli- 
out a trip to Old Mexico and the 
Sweetwater Dam over the 

National City and Otay Railway. 
Train leaves foot 5th st. at 9:10 a. m. 

daily — for particulars see folders. 

E. A. HoRNBECK, Superintendent. 



Compulsory' vaccination laws in Kan- 
sas have been defeated in the supreme 
court. 



RAISINS 

We have a lot of the Choicest 4 Crown 
London Layers which we are offering at 

3 lbs. for 25 cents. 

The CENTRAL GROCERY Company 
719-721 iviftli St. San Diego. 



Purchase your 

FOOTWEAR at 
Llewelyn's, 

728 Fifth street. 

San Diego, California. 

PERIODIC'VLS. 

YOUTH'S COMPANION: 

144 Berkeley street, Boston, Mass. 

This popular paper is aditpd for the en- 
tire family, and is eagerly looked for 
each week by young and old alike. 
Bright and amusing anecdotes, stories, 
curious and useful knowledg-e. timely ed- 
itorials on public and domestic questions 
make up this great literary achievement. 
$1.7.> a y^ar. 
MUHLENBERGIA: 

No. 547 W. Walnut St., Lancaster, Pa. 

A journal of botajiy edited and pub- 
lished by A. A. Heller. $1 a volume. 
VERMONT JOURNAL,: Windsor. Vt. 

WEST AMERICAN SCIENTIST: 
Established 1884. 
Published Monthly. 
Price Iflc a copy; $1 a year; $10 for life. 
Charles Uussell Orcutt. Rdltor, 
Number 365 Twenty-first Streot, 
San Diego, California. 
WILSON BULLETIN: 
160 N. Professor St., Oberlin, Ohio. 
"The best exponent of field ornithol- 
ogy." 

Specimen copy free. 
MINING: Spokane, Washington. 

Journal of tho northwest mining asso- 
ciation. $1 a yr. Monthly. 



U '&^ 'i) .2OJ(JN.1903 






The West American Scientist. 



Vol. XIV. No. 7. 



July, 1903. 



Whole No. J26. 



THE WILD FLOWER PRESERVA- 
TION SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 

The increased interest in nature 
study developed within recent years, 
and stimulated by numerous illustrated 
books of a popular nature, has unfor- 
tunately endangered the existence of 
many ornamental wild plants that 
would otherwise have escaped public 
notice. The problem presented is how 
these depredations may be checlied 
without seriously restricting the free- 
dom or enjoyment of the nature-lover. 
Local societies having this aim in 
view have been established in several 
places, and various articles on the sub- 
ject have appeared in magazines and 
newspapers; these are all usefull fac- 
tors in arousing a healthy public senti- 
ment against indiscrimkiate and 
thoughtless fiower-picking. But it is 
evident that the successful prosecu- 
tion of a campaign of this kind re- 
quires a central body which shall dire -t 
and insp-ire the work; and it also re- 
quires some official medium of publi- 
cation. The organization of a natunal 
society along these lines, effected on 
April 23, 1902, whue it rei)rece;Us to a 
certain extent the growth of popular 
sentiment, is the direct result of the re- 
maa-ks iby Dr. F. H. Knovvlton in his 
essay, "Suggestions for the Preserva- 
tion of Our Native Plants," which was 
awarded the first prize in the recent 
competition held by the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden with the income of the 
Caroline and Olivia Phelps-Stokes 
fund. A few paragraphs from the es- 
say itself will serve as a partial ex- 
planation of the aims and objects of the 
Society: 

"It seems to me that all legitimate ef- 
fort that can be made for the conserva- 



tion of the native flora is naturally di- 
visible into two fields: First, the broad- 
er, higher plane of enlightened public 
sentiment regarding the protection of 
plants in general and, second, the im- 
mediate steps that must be taken to 
save certain of the more showy or in- 
tt resting forms now threatened with 
extermination. The first is something 
we may reasonably hope for, even if it 
comes slowly; the second is a practical 
question that must be solved quickly or 
it will be too late. * * * The public 
must be educated up to the point when 
it will be possible for them to enjoy 
the flowers and plants of field and for- 
est without destroying them. They 
must be led to see that it is only self- 
ishness which prompts the indiscrim- 
inate plucking of every bright-colored 
flower or shapely fern that attracts 
their eye. A walk afield, enlivened by 
the presence of Lowers and birds, leaves 
behind a memory that may be cher- 
iFhed for years. The ruthless breaking 
up of this rounded symmetry of nature, 
simply for the gratification of the mo- 
ment, leaves a void impossible to fill." 

* * * :[: 

The proposed fields of labor of the So- 
ciety may be summarized as foUloiWs: 

EDUCATION.— The primary and sec- 
ondary schools afford abundant oppor- 
tunity for missionary work. Let every 
teacher aim to impress on the pupils 
under his charge the beauty and value 
of plant life. Let him give some in- 
struction in the differences between 
native species, many of which are rare 
o: easily destroyed, and the introduced 
weeds, most of which are so sturdy 
and abundant that they will survive 
wholesale plucking. 

MORAL SUASION.— Public senti- 
ment can be influenced! to a large ex- 



m 



iii( 

h/',